Published by
International Partnership on Mitigation and MRV

Intended Nationally Determined Contributions


Please note that updated versions are available (see links column).


Several questions on INDCs have to be solved in the coming months since they have been left open by the Warsaw Decision. This paper focuses on the question of what a contribution could include, and how this content can be determined. It also provides an overview of the main questions, some of which are further detailed in the chapters below. 

  • Meaning of INDCs and rationale for countries to prepare them
  • Technical requirements for the preparation of an INDC
  • Options for the preparation and communication of an INDC
  • Requirements regarding INDC information content
  • Expectations for the international process for INDCs