Chilean President Michelle Bachelet launched Chile’s preparation process for its INDC at the UN Climate Summit in New York, in September 2014. The final INDC was officially submitted in September 2015 1 and contains an unconditional target of 30% reduction of GHG emissions-intensity of GDP compared to 2007 levels by 2030, complemented by a conditional target (35–45% reduction of GHG emissions-intensity of GDP compared to 2007 by 2030) and a separate forestry target.
Chile is considered a “first mover” as it was among the first developing countries to prepare and publish a draft version of the INDC. The INDC builds heavily on Chile’s Mitigation Action Plans and Scenarios Project (MAPS), both in terms of data and with regard to inter-ministerial coordination processes. A public consultation process, that started in December 2014 and ended in April 2015, improved ownership and provided input from different stakeholders and the general public to the INDC. The process included the web publication of the INDC proposal with a web-based mechanism for receiving feedback as well as seven regional workshops and several presentations to targeted audiences.
The case highlights the importance of efforts to build public awareness and to design specific climate change policies that go beyond existing instruments.
Raising awareness. The preparation process of the INDC largely built upon the MAPS Chile Project and its public participation. On this basis, public consultation for the INDC involved a large group of stakeholders and other actors, and raised awareness with regard to the general public and also at the decision-making level.
Strengthening the policy framework for climate change. The INDC is considered a central component of the Chilean climate change policy framework. The INDC allows Chile to define objectives and goals to be achieved at different timescales. The implementation of these goals is ensured through the Climate Action Plan, which will be updated after the presentation of the final INDC. All NAMAs that have been formulated in Chile to date will be part of the package of mitigation actions needed to achieve the intensity target, and there will be work conducted at other levels as well, such as “Huella Chile” (Footprint Chile), a programme developed under the LECB Project to systematise carbon footprint information.
Creating a broad analytical basis. The public consultation process led to a careful review of over 250 comments and to close collaboration with various interest groups and sub-national governments. This process ensured the compilation of relevant and credible data for the INDC preparation process.
Avoiding GHG emissions. The Climate Action Tracker estimates that Chile’s INDC will result in emission levels of 161 MtCO 2e by 2030, respectively 127-147 MtCO 2e considering the conditional target (excl. emissions from LULUCF). The intensity target does not include emissions or removals from the forestry sector. Chile proposes to reach an area of at least 100,000 hectares of sustainably managed and recovered forest by 2030 with estimated emissions reductions of 0.6 MtCO 2e per year from 2030 The afforestation of 100,00 hectares is estimated to capture between 0.9–1.2 MtCO 2e per year from 2030.
Co-benefits. The most important co-benefits of the mitigation component of Chile’s INDC include enhancement of air quality through the improvement of energy efficiency and the introduction of fuel consumption standards, as well as the promotion of afforestation plans in South Central Chile. Chile’s INDC also includes an adaptation component related to the development and improvement of strategic planning instruments. The country is also contemplating improving capacity building, technology and finance, e.g. through South-South-North cooperation and enhancement of public expenditure for climate change.
- Ministry of Environment of Chile (Climate Change Office)
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Ministry of Energy
- Ministry of Agriculture
- Ministry of Mining
- Ministry of Finance
- Ministry of Transportation
- Ministry of Housing